The PhD in Chemical and Environmental Sciences offers the following courses:
(Note that this page is under construction and some courses are not available in English yet. The courses planned for the a.y. 2019-2020 are highlighted in red bold characters)
- REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM: UN APPROCCIO INTEGRATO PER L’ANALISI DEI DATI AMBIENTALI
- PROGETTAZIONE E SVILUPPO SU SCALA INDUSTRIALE DI API (ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENTS)
- INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC METHODOLOGIES IN HETEROCYCLIC SYNTHESIS
- MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
- CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS AT THE NANOSCALE
- RELAZIONI STRUTTURA CRISTALLINA – PROPRIETÀ FUNZIONALI
- NANOMATERIALI: CARATTERIZZAZIONE ALLA MULTISCALA TRAMITE TECNICHE DI TOTAL SCATTERING E RELAZIONI STRUTTURA-PROPRIETA’
- METODI MATEMATICI E NUMERICI IN CHIMICA
- MACCHINE E DISPOSITIVI SUPRAMOLECOLARI
- MATERIALI SUPERCONDUTTORI
- MICROSCOPIE ELETTRONICHE A SCANSIONE ED IN TRASMISSIONE
- TECNICHE AVANZATE DI SPETTROMETRIA DI MASSA
- MODELLING OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION DISPERSIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE EMISSIONS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EVENTS
- CRITERI GEOLOGICI PER LA LOCALIZZAZIONE DI IMPIANTI AD ELEVATO RISCHIO AMBIENTALE
- IMPATTI DEL CAMBIAMENTO CLIMATICO SULLA BIODIVERSITÀ VEGETALE
- COSTRUZIONE DI MODELLI DEL DESTINO AMBIENTALE
- PRINCIPI E PROCEDURE PER LA COMPATIBILITA’ AMBIENTALE DI PROGETTI DI INTERVENTI DI DISINQUINAMENTO
- BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
- WILDLIFE ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
- PREDICTIVE ECOTOXICOLIGY AND BASIC CONCEPTS FOR MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
- PARTICULATE MATTER: RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN HEALTH
- EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE
- METHODS AND MODELS FOR THE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO CHEMICALS
- MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
INTRODUCTION TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS FOR PRECISION DRUG DELIVERY
Insegnamento # 1
Insegnamento # 2
Course # 3
INNOVATIVE CATALYTIC METHODOLOGIES IN HETEROCYCLIC SYNTHESIS
Teacher: Gianluigi BROGGINI
Objectives: The course aims at furnishing knowledge in the field of the homogeneous catalysis applied to the heterocyclic chemistry, in particular highlighting the importance of heterocycles in drugs.
Programme: Introduction to the transition metal catalysis. Change of ligands, coordination and dissociation. Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds by amination, hydroamination, alkoxylation, hydroalkoxylation and hydroarylation reactions promoted by palladium, gold, platinum and ruthenium catalysts. Carbonylation reactions. Stereoselective reactions: chiral ligands and stereoinductive models. Organocatalysis.
Teaching material: J.A. Joule, K. Mills, Heterocylic Chemistry, Blackwell Science, 2000. Reviews of the recent literature.
Insegnamento # 4
Course # 5
CRYSTALLINE MATERIALS AT THE NANOSCALE
Teacher: Federica BERTOLOTTI
Objectives: the course will provide an introduction on the most relevant aspects about nanocrystalline materials: from the synthetic procedures, to the characterization, up to the main applications.
Programme: introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology; main synthetic methods for the preparation of engineered nanomaterials; crystal structure and defectiveness of the materials at the nanoscale; characterization methods at different length scales; structure-properties correlations.
Books: Boris Ildusovich Kharisov, Oxana Vasilievna Kharissova and Ubaldo Ortiz-Mendez, CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, CRC Press , (2015), ISBN 9781466580343; slides and pdf files provided during the course.
Insegnamento # 6
Insegnamento # 7
Insegnamento # 8
Insegnamento # 9
Insegnamento # 10
Insegnamento # 11
Insegnamento # 12
Course # 13
MODELLING OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION DISPERSIONS: ANALYSIS OF THE EMISSIONS DUE TO ACCIDENTAL EVENTS
Teacher: Sabrina COPELLI
Objectives: The aim of the course is to provide a detailed description of the basic phenomenology of pollutant dispersions in an open field following accidental events. In addition, point source models will be introduced that will be able to provide a rough estimate (in terms of concentrations to the generic receptor) of the magnitude of these releases in the atmosphere.
– Slides and handouts provided by the Professor
Insegnamento # 14
Insegnamento # 15
Insegnamento # 16
Insegnamento # 17
Course # 18
BIOMONITORING OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
Teacher: Roberta BETTINETTI
Objective: Fundamental basic elements to study freshwater environments to gather information for their correct management. Great attention will be posed to the Water grabbing problem.
Programme: Chemical-physical and biological characteristics of lakes. Communities and trophic relationship. Sampling of the different matrices, methods and instruments. Contamination of freshwater environments and their ecotoxicological monitoring. Water grabbing.
References: Bettinetti R., Crosa, G., Galassi S. 2007. Ecologia delle acque interne, (CittàStudi Ed.): 150 pp.
Emanuele Bompan e Marirosa Iannelli. Water Grabbing. Guerre nascoste per l’acqua nel XXI secolo.
Course # 19
WILDLIFE ROLE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Teacher: Adriano MARTINOLI
Objectives: Provide basic elements for understanding wildlife management techniques in the context of biological conservation.
Programme: The Italian fauna is the richest of all European countries and amounts to approximately 56,000 known species, a value that represents an underestimation if we consider the recent descriptions, even of endemic species, thanks to the application of molecular biology techniques in the context of systematic and taxonomy. Italy, through the tools identified in the framework of the “National Strategy for Biodiversity”, is committed to integrating biodiversity conservation into economic policies, also as an opportunity for new forms of employment and sustainable social development, strengthening the understanding of the benefits deriving from biodiversity conservation and the perception of direct and indirect costs of biodiversity losses.
In this course, the themes of wildlife management are discussed analyzing their criticality and potential, also by strengthening and promoting a strategic, systemic and synergic approach that takes into account, as a priority, the need for flexibility. The course will also underline that the natural and socio-economic knowledge are essential reference points for operational and management choices.
The main monitoring methods and their effectiveness in collecting and analyzing data useful for the planning of management and conservation strategies, for the formulation and simulation of scenarios and predictive models, will be critically analyzed. Their effectiveness for monitoring and measuring progress and identifying problems in the context of preserving the Italian wildlife heritage will be evaluated.
The course will focus mainly on the following detailed issues:
1-Italian fauna components: definition, description and analysis
2-Wildlife conservation: critical issues and operational paradigms
3-Role of the fauna components in the ecosystems
4-Survey techniques, monitoring, harmonization and analysis of wildlife data
5-Management and conservation strategies
Books: Conservation Biology for All (N.S. Sodhi & P.R.Ehrlich, 2010) – The text can be downloaded at this link: http://www.mongabay.com/conservation-biology-for-all.html
Course # 20
PREDICTIVE ECOTOXICOLOGY AND BASIC CONCEPTS FOR MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS
Teacher: Ester PAPA
Objectives: The course introduces the students to the use of multivariate analysis for the exploration of complex data and to the creation of in silico models able to describe quantitative structure-activity relationships and to predict missing data of interest in ecotoxicological field.
Programme: analysis of the structure of multivariate data and pre-treatment methods; principal techniques of data exploration: Principal Components Analysis, and Clusters Analysis; introduction to alternative methods to animal testing, the 3R strategy, QSAR modeling with examples of prediction of properties and activities for environmentally relevant organic chemicals.
Teaching materials: slides (pdf)
Course # 21
PARTICULATE MATTER: RISK ASSESSMENT AND RISK MANAGEMENT FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN HEALTH
Teacher: Andrea CATTANEO
Objectives: Elucidate the risk assessment of particulate matter (PM) with focus on exposure assessment, which is the starting point for the development and implementation of effective risk management policies and control strategies based on the identification of the main determinants of exposure and sources of contamination in indoor and outdoor environments.
Programme: Atmospheric PM: definitions, dimensional and compositional characteristics, adverse effects on human health and action mechanisms. Measurement methods of atmospheric concentrations according to different metrics. Challenges and new research trends on the subject.
– Approaches to the study of sources and determinants of PM exposure to ultrafine, fine and coarse PM fractions. Similarities and differences between indoor and outdoor environments: the role of infiltration factors. Analysis of recent literature findings on the subject.
– Risk management: analysis of the most effective exposure mitigation measures and risk management policies. Evaluation of their effectiveness and efficiency on different scales (from microenvironments to regional and global contexts).
Learning materials: the scientific literature on the subject will be provided, as original articles and reviews.
Books: The scientific literature on the subject will be provided, as original articles and reviews.
Insegnamento # 22
Course # 23
METHODS AND MODELS FOR THE EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO CHEMICALS
Teacher: Andrea SPINAZZÉ
Objectives: The course aims to illustrate the main theoretical and practical issues related to the use of estimation models and other experimental methods used for the assessment of occupational and environmental exposure to chemicals, with particular reference to case studies related to emerging risk factors and the latest updates in the exhibition sciences.
- General aspects relating to the chemical risk assessment.
- Estimation of occupational exposure to chemical agents using estimation models: methodological and practical aspects; reliability and representativeness of the exposure estimates.
- Approaches and methodologies for assessing the risks of combined exposure to multiple chemicals.
- Emerging risk factors: use of a probabilistic approach for risk assessment (the case of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials).
- Exposure of the general population to airborne pollutants, for epidemiological studies and the health impact assessment: exposure estimation (dispersion models; Land-use regression model), use of miniaturized sensors for monitoring selected populations and approach ” citizen-science”.
Teaching materials: W.R. Ott, A.C. Steinemann, L.A. Wallace: “Exposure Analysis” – CRC Taylor and Francis (ISBN– 13: 978-1-56670-663-6). Slides (pdf).
Course # 24
MATERIALS FOR SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN
Teacher: Vladimiro DAL SANTO
Objectives: To provide an overview of the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier and to provide specific information on innovative materials for its production.
Programme: Introduction to hydrogen as a sustainable energy vector (traditional vectors, alternative vectors, sustainable mobility, and stationary systems). Materials for the production, storage and use of hydrogen. Insights on materials for production: i. heterogeneous catalysts for renewables reforming, pyrolysis, partial oxidation; ii. photo- and photoelectron-catalysts for the production of solar fuels; iii. Electro-catalysts for electrolysers (proton and anionic exchange membrane systems).
Teaching materials: Papers and reviews taken from recent literature; slides (pdf).
Course # 25
INTRODUCTION TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
Teacher: Barbara GIUSSIANI
Objectives: Provide the main skills to project and optimize experiments through the “Design of Experiment” approach.
Programme: Brief overview of basic statistics (average, standard deviation, data distribution). Introduction to experimental design techniques. Screening, advanced screening and optimization design: problem set up and data interpretation. D-optimal design.
Books: Brereton, R.G., Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, Wiley
Articles provided by the teacher.
Course # 26
SUPRAMOLECULAR SYSTEMS FOR PRECISION DRUG DELIVERY
Teacher: Lorella IZZO
Objectives: The course aim is to provide students with basics on supramolecular chemistry and on its application for rational design of smart nano-carriers for precision drug delivery.
Supramolecular chemistry is defined as chemistry beyond the molecule and is related to organized entities resulting from the self-association of two or more chemical species as a consequence of intermolecular forces. It has developed from host-guest complex to self-assembly of low molecular building blocks or macromolecular aggregates; these can take place in solution, at the solid state or at interfaces. The resulting nano-objects contribute daily to the expansion of the new field of nanotechnology.
Inspired from natural systems, supramolecular chemistry has been widely used in the biomedical field, e.g. in the construction of polymer-based nanoscale drug-delivery systems. Benefiting from the low strength of the non-covalent interactions, supramolecular systems are usually characterized by a dynamical/reversible state, and are therefore able to respond dramatically to small physical or chemical changes of the environment. Additionally, supramolecular affinity can play a key role in both polymers self-assembly and in drugs loading.
Programme: The course will start introducing the characteristics needed by a disordered system to form organized structures or patterns. Then, representative supramolecular structures will be introduced, starting from the host-guest complex involving the concept of molecular recognition, to polymer aggregates.
The course will continue focusing on the latter systems, with particular attention to smart polymer-based nano-vehicles for drug release that are known to enhance therapeutic specificity. It will be shown how such nano-systems may offer the chance of tailoring drug-release profiles due to the capability of responding to small changes in the properties of the biological environment (i.e. pH, ionic strength, temperature and oxidation potential), a goal achievable via a precise design of polymer chemical compositions.
At the end of the course, the student will be able to rationally indicate which building blocks are needed, and how these should be interrelated, to obtain self-assembling polymers for precision drug delivery.
Provide the main skills to project and optimize experiments through the “Design of Experiment” approach.